Barrett-Jackson, Las Vegas, June 22-24, 2023

It was sixteen years ago, in 2008, that Barrett-Jackson first ventured to Las Vegas. Held at the Mandalay Bay Hotel’s arena where as is common in casino design getting to the auction arena meant traversing the gaming area. They hope you’re going to be beguiled by the constant commotion, lost in the deliberately confusing layout or tarry to place a bet or two.

It was, I observed at the time, B-J’s spiritual home where the glitz, glamor and commercial attractions of a B-J auction merged seamlessly with the Las Vegas environment. It’s only converged more in the past decade and a half even though the auction is now located in the more neutral setting of the Las Vegas Convention Center.

B-J is as much as ever the spiritual home of Restomods (a category created at B-J), customs and rods. For those of us who attempt to follow the twists and turns of the collector car market those categories are for individual personalized cars. While a string of modified Ford Broncos may tell a tale of modified Ford Bronco values they impart nothing about standard Broncos. That makes a B-J auction an exercise in trying to find standard cars configured as they were built.

But the restomods and customs are what people come to a B-J auction to find, and builders flock to B-J to offer what the bidders want and access the bidders’ wide-open wallets. B-J is the place where bidders come to overpay for a car and joyously brag to their friends at home, “I paid a world record price for this car at Barrett-Jackson.”

It’s a formula that works, that has been refined over years and has proved it has a continuing appeal.

Would I buy a car at B-J? Well, actually I have, a Maserati Quattroporte. Not exactly a restomod, but I was beguiled by its 4.9 litre 4-cam V8, four dual choke Weber carburetors and posh butterscotch leather interior. My mistake, but it was only [sic] $8,000 and many years ago. I’ve learned that lesson.

2023 was the lowest B-J Las Vegas sale total since 2015 and the lowest consignment since the second sale back in 2009. The average and median transactions weren’t off nearly as much, but it’s still the lowest post-Covid 19.

And if being here meant taking a ride in Boring Company’s underground transit loop it was worth the trip.

Andrew Newton went to Las Vegas for Barrett-Jackson. Here are the numbers:

Year Cars Sold/ Offered Sale % Average Sale Median Sale Total $
2023 495/495 100% $59,056 $37,400


2022 662/662 100% $72,771 $55,000


2021 601/601 100% $76,381 $52,800



Lot # 12 1988 Chevrolet Corvette 35th Anniversary Coupe; S/N 1G1YY2180J5114721; White/White leather; Unrestored original 3 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $11,700 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $12,870 – 350/245hp, automatic, store brand tires, glass roof, later Pioneer stereo. – Mileage not disclosed but it looks like it has seen a lot. Some paint chipping off the white wheels. Body paint looks OK, although the front bumper is faded a bit. Black seat covers are covering up lightly worn leather. The glass roof has a lot of scratches on it. Over 2,000 of these cars were sold, so they’re not exactly rare. That didn’t stop many people from parking them as instant collectibles, but this one actually got driven. – 35th Anniversary Edition Corvette production totaled 2,050 units and the option added white on white livery with white alloy wheels plus black roof panel. They didn’t add performance, but people like the special wheels and the look, so despite the base model performance and the not-that-rare production numbers, 35th Anniversary cars command thousands more than regular base ’88 coupes. Even, as this car shows, used ones. If it were a base car in this condition, it wouldn’t have broken five figures.

Lot # 26 1966 Austin Princess Limousine; S/N VDM416503; Black/Black leather in front, Tan cloth in back; Visually maintained, largely original 3- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $30,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $33,000 – RHD. 4.0-liter six, column shift automatic, hub caps and trim rings, Michelin X tires, partial fender skirts, dual wing mirrors, Lucas driving lights, division window, fold-down wood cupholders, jump seats, suicide rear doors. – Not much history represented. Looks like original paint with cracks on the hood and chips on the nose. Two medium sized dents on the right front, and two more small ones on the tail. No visible rust or rot underneath. Seat bottom in the front has new leather, but the seat back is original and heavily worn. The rest of the interior mostly looks good, and the wood is holding up well, but the cloth on the rear deck has water stains. An interesting, stately old English limo, but the lack of a Bentley or RR badge on the front limits its appeal, and it will surely be expensive to put this thing right. – Probably a survivor of years of “Wedding Car” or funeral service, eventually relegated to rowdy limo rides to rock concerts. Despite being inconsistently presented and needing an untold amount of work, this Austin sold like it did have a Bentley or RR badge. Oddly, Barrett-Jackson Vegas, which typically happens near Independence Day, seems like a good place to sell old British limousines. An ex-Queen Elizabeth Princess limo, this one with Vanden Plas badging, sold for a surprising $110,000 at this sale last year.

Lot # 46 1986 Nissan 300ZX Turbo Hatchback; S/N JN1CZ14S3GX102353; White/Tan leather; Unrestored original 3- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $6,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $6,600 – 1,960/200hp, automatic, T-tops, cassette. – Represented as a one-owner car, and that owner drove it plenty. Rough paint with numerous touch ups. Dirty, dull wheels. Worn, dirty interior. Grimy but seemingly maintained engine bay. – The Z31-generation 300ZX brought the Nissan Z-car into the `80s with a wider, squarer stance, color-coded bumpers, and pop-up headlights. It also introduced Nissan’s first V6 engine, but these cars are more cruisers than sports cars, as exemplified by this one’s automatic, which still carries a significant discount compared to the 5-speed. That discount was certainly applied here, but the new owner at least has a usable `80s T-topped classic rice-burner for cheap.

Lot # 56 1936 Chrysler Airflow Imperial 4-Dr. Sedan; S/N C91663; Brown/Gray cloth; Visually maintained, largely original 3- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $24,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $26,400 – 299 cid straight-eight, 3-speed, artillery wheels with hub caps, wide whitewalls, fender skirts, pop-out windshield, banjo steering wheel. – Faded, chipped, scratched and discolored paint. Pitted brightwork and scratched bumper chrome. Decent panel gaps except on the trunk, which sticks out on one side. Well-preserved original interior with only light wear and discoloration on the cloth. Tidy underneath with old undercoating. The rubber on the running boards is deteriorating but not falling off. An honest project Airflow. – No matter what anyone thought about the appearance of the Airflows they were technically far advanced from anything else in the U.S. at the time. In the fraught years of the Depression, however, few wanted to take a risk on new-fangled technology and the Airflows failed miserable in the market. They were quickly given new designs to make them look less different and soon disappeared. A few subsequent collectors have recognized their superiority but they’ve never caught on and as in this case they appeal to only a few collectors who don’t spend much on them either in restorations or in buying them.

Lot # 65 1985 Volkswagen Vanagon Westfalia Campmobile; S/N WV2ZB0259FH002366; Bright White/Tan cloth; Truck restoration 3 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $14,500 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $15,950 – 1,915/82hp, 4-speed, hub caps and trim rings, Hankook tires, aftermarket Alpine stereo, stove, sink, beds, tinted glass. – Dull exterior plastic, while the bumpers are painted incorrectly and show small dents under the respray. Clean wheels. Old weather stripping. Decent body paint with some masking errors. Good, partially restored interior, and all the accessories reportedly work. Cracked left taillight lens. “Restored” means refurbished in this case, but this would be a fun way to do a few road trips with some added character, although you’d be traveling pretty slowly. – VW microbuses bring solid money in Monterey, but this is neither a microbus nor Monterey and the quality, condition and legacy of this Vanagon leaves a lot to be desired. It wasn’t cheap, but it promises more enjoyment than the money paid for it.

Lot # 67 1947 Cadillac Series 62 Club Coupe; S/N 8455580; Light Gray,, Dark Gray roof/Gray cloth; Visually maintained, largely original 4+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $25,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $27,500 – 346/150hp, automatic, wheel covers, whitewalls, original radio, dash clock, fender skirts. – Ancient, chipped paint and dull chrome. Large rip in the driver’s seat. Dirty underneath but no serious rust visible. – What would have been the pride and joy of the local bank president in 1947 is now a sad, neglected old thing better suited for a crash conversion to a Rustomod than a restoration. If it gets that treatment look for it in Scottsdale or Kissimmee in 2024, but even then it doesn’t have much chance of making money after paying this much for it.

Lot # 86.1 1992 Chevrolet Camaro Z/28 Sport Coupe; S/N 1G1FP23F9NL123277; Victory Red/Gray cloth; Unrestored original 3- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $18,500 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $20,350 – 305/205hp, 5-speed, alloy wheels, Kumho tires, Flowmaster exhaust, factory Bose radio, power windows, aftermarket tint on the rear glass. – Desirable and relatively rare 5-speed. Engine is very clean and recently detailed. Paint is holding up well other than light general chips on the front. Clean, lightly worn interior. Presents like a solid, lightly used third gen Z/28 but there are a couple of problems. It shows 101,797 miles, and it was stolen in 2003, according to CARFAX. – Camaro celebrated its 25th anniversary in 1992, and it was the last year for the angular F-body that had debuted a decade earlier. Z/28s, especially equipped with 5-speeds, have seen their values spike over the past couple of years even as their Corvette cousins have stayed flat. Pre-pandemic this price would have bought the nicest ’92 Z/28 in the world. Today, it bought a high-mile car with a theft history.

Lot # 93 1965 Volkswagen Beetle 2-Dr. Sedan; S/N 115458065; Red/Gray vinyl; Older restoration 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $18,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $19,800 – 1,285/50hp, 4-speed, hub caps and trim rings, roof rack, Sapphire I radio, 12-volt electrics. – Represented as a 1300, which is probably from a ’66 VW. Engine and carb both rebuilt last year. Presentable and clean paint and chrome but they’re both older, and the right rear fender got knocked at some point because there is a shallow dent and a large gouge in the paint. A few paint chips in the steering wheel but good interior. Plenty of small things to nitpick but, hey, it’s a Beetle. Overall, it’s a solid car. – A solid Beetle with neat period accessories bought right-on for its condition. Excellent, lavishly restored Beetles with the rarest add-ons have appreciated significantly over the past five years or so, but honest driver-quality cars like this one are still out there for entry-level money.

Lot # 101 1990 Porsche 944 S2 Cabriolet; S/N WP0CB2941LN480372; Black/White leather; Black top; Unrestored original 3- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $17,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $18,700 – 2,992/208hp, 5-speed, Continental tires, cloth boot cover, Sony CD. – Showing 110,717 miles and wearing plenty of chips and scratches all over. Mild curb rash on one of the wheels. The interior, however, is holding up very well. Very much a used 944 Cab. – On balance, the later S2 may be the best choice for someone who wants a 944. Its big 3.0-liter DOHC engine gives way more grunt than the earlier cars but also doesn’t come with the lag and the complexity of the turbo models. The S2 was also the only 944 offered as a cabriolet, built briefly at the end of the model’s life by the American Sunroof Company (ASC) at their new factory in Germany. In Porsche tradition, though, structural rigidity and driving purity trumps wind-in-the-hair motoring. S2 cabs are worth quite a bit less than the coupes. Driver coupes can sell for twice as much. The new owner here is in a fun Porsche for less than 20 grand, but like any used entry-level P-car the parts and service will start to add up on this one pretty quick.

Lot # 107.1 1977 Mercury Bobcat Villager Station Wagon; S/N 7T22Y514586; Blue, Woodgrain/Blue vinyl with plaid cloth inserts; Unrestored original 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $25,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $27,500 – 2.3-liter/89hp four, floor shift automatic, roof rack, bucket seats, original radio. – Showing 37,150 miles that are represented as actual. Displayed in a North Carolina museum for 20 years. Some scratches on the front, on the roof, and on the bumpers. Wheels are a little faded and show some oxidation, but otherwise it’s a time warp woodie wagon, the kind of car nobody ever thought to save. – Enthusiasts under the age of about 40 might not have ever even seen a Mercury Bobcat, but Lincoln-Mercury dealerships moved over 224,000 units of this rebadged, gussied up Ford Pinto from 1974-80. At a time when Detroit was perhaps at peak station wagon with dozens of different long-roof models available, the Bobcat Villager and similar Pinto Squire were some of the smallest options. Smallest also often means cheapest and most disposable, but for some reason someone decided to store this one carefully and keep it tidy. The bidders recognized how special it is. Are there countless better-looking, faster, more special, better-built cars out there for $27,500? Absolutely. But the point here was to snag what is probably the world’s best surviving Mercury Bobcat Villager, and the buyer here ponied up for those odd bragging rights. If you owned one of these or its Pinto cousin back in the day you remember what a delightful, sprightly, good handling, practical vehicle it was.

Lot # 116 1986 Rolls-Royce Corniche I Drophead Coupe; S/N SCAZD42A5GCX14604; Cinnamon/Brown leather piped in Beige; Visually maintained, largely original 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $36,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $39,600 – 6,750/220hp V-8, automatic, wheel covers, narrow whitewalls, leather boot cover, cassette, air conditioning. – Canadian-delivery car showing 93,201 km (57,912 miles). Repainted in 1998, and some recent suspension work. Several long paint cracks down the whole right side of the vehicle plus some more small ones around the hood. Clean wheels and tires. Slightly stretched upholstery but the interior is holding up well. A used but reasonably well cared for Corniche I (although cataloged as a Corniche II.) – It may be archaic and difficult and expensive to maintain but it’s still stately, comfortable, luxurious and elegant, attributes hard to find for prices like this realistic amount.

Lot # 132 1962 Chrysler 300H 2-Dr. Hardtop; S/N 8423142720; White/Tan leather; Older restoration 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $40,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $44,000 – 413/380hp, pushbutton automatic, wheel covers, narrow whitewalls, tach, console, power windows, pushbutton radio. – Good paint and chrome. Body trim shows some age. Light wear to the leather up front but otherwise beautiful interior. A solid, late finless Letter Car restored relatively recently. – The 300H is not appreciated. Shorn of its fins and its cross-ram intakes, let alone its Hemi engines, the 300H is a badge-engineered vestige of its former self. Fourteen years ago this 300H was bid to $20,100 at Auburn Fall and today it has escaped the ravages of inflation. If only a Big Mac was only 2.2x as expensive today.

Lot # 137 1964 Pontiac Catalina 2-Dr. Hardtop; S/N 834K45511; Sun Fire Red,, Cameo White roof/Red vinyl, cloth; Older restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $28,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $30,800 – 389, automatic, PMD Rally wheels, double white line tires, AM radio. – Spent years stored in a Wyoming barn but mostly restored, although it is represented with original paint on the roof and bottom of the trunk lid. The paint and chrome all look great, other than a ding and scratches on the left headlight bezel. Clean wheels. Very good interior. Clean and partially restored underneath. – At B-J mystery is an occasional adjunct. In this case we know little to nothing about the configuration of this Catalina Hardtop, nor why it should be worth this much, if anything at all. You buy it because it looks cool in Sun Fire Red and Cameo White, and pay magnanimously.

Lot # 140 1960 Ford Thunderbird Convertible; S/N 0Y73Y155174; Moroccan Ivory/Black, White leather; Black top; Older restoration 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $34,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $37,400 – 352/300hp, automatic, wire wheels, power windows, pushbutton radio, power steering and brakes. – Good older paint with a few scratches. A few dings on the front bumper and mild pitting on some of the trim. Light wear to the upholstery but serious wear on the console and switchgear. Tidy underneath. A good 20-footer. – But it was bought for a 10-footer price. It’s an ordinary ’60 T’bird, distinguished by nothing and let down by details that were overlooked in a superficial “restoration”. A practical drop-top drive than no one will be particularly proud to drive.

Lot # 149 1989 Ford Bronco Eddie Bauer Wagon 4×4; S/N 1FMEU15N8KLA07523; Blue,, Tan/Tan cloth; Unrestored original 3 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $16,500 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $18,150 – 302/185hp, automatic, air conditioning, power windows, cassette, fog lights, power steering and brakes, cassette stereo. – Numerous chips and blemishes on the hood as well as large scratches on the tail, but the rest of the repaint is holding up well. Mostly clean interior but the headliner is ripped, and the gauge binnacle faded. Tidy underbody. A used fourth gen Bronco, but a solid one and represented to be the original engine. – A year ago we watched Broncos like this stun collectors with huge prices. The bloom is off the Bronco rose in 2023 and they’re – at least to judge from results like this – back to being practical, utilitarian weekend drivers.

Lot # 169 1969 American Motors Javelin Fastback; S/N A9C797X216334; Lime Green,, Black side stripes and Black vinyl roof/Black vinyl; Visually maintained, largely original 4+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $18,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $19,800 – 390/315hp, floor shift automatic, factory radio, luggage rack. – Recently rebuilt carburetor, front brakes, and new shocks but otherwise original and scruffy. The engine and frame show mild surface rust. The paint is an ancient, cheap respray and the roof vinyl is warped and faded. Dull trim and lights, and the driver’s door has a wide, shallow dent. Rough interior with significant wear on the seats, console, and steering wheel. It’s always cool to see a Javelin, especially an SST, but this isn’t an easy one to fall in love with. – The bidders certainly didn’t fall for it. It’s a #4+ car bought for #4+ money, barely more than if not parts car money.

Lot # 335 1970 BMW 2002 2-Dr. Sedan; S/N 1674381; Manila/Black vinyl; Older restoration 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $22,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $24,200 – 1,990/114hp, 4-speed, wheel covers, Kumho tires, aftermarket stereo. – Beautiful engine bay. Old, possibly original chrome. Small chip in the windshield. Very good paint other than small runs on the left drip rail. Old tires and a few dings in the hub caps. Light scratches in the rear glass. Very good interior. A good, honest round taillight 2002 that had money spent on the most important parts. – This car sold at Mecum Houston five years ago for $24,200 and has added 1,223 miles to its odometer since then. It’s in essentially the same condition it was in 2018 but BMW 2002 prices have surged since then, so this was a really good buy.

Lot # 341.1 1958 Jaguar 3.4 Litre 4-Dr. Sedan; S/N S986312BW; Black/Tan leather; Enthusiast restoration 3 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $16,500 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $18,150 – 3,442/210hp, column shift automatic, hub caps, drum brakes, partial fender skirts, narrow whitewalls, original radio. – Tidy engine that looks older restored. Old paint. Dull, possibly original chrome. Good, even gaps. Pitting on the rear trim. Lightly worn but soft and usable original leather. Wood is all in decent shape. A solid driver. – Commonly referred to as the Jaguar Mark I, this car would have been sold as a 3.4 Litre saloon, and the Mark I name was only applied retroactively after the Mark II came out in late 1959. Like the Mark II, it’s a handsome, comfortable, and surprisingly quick little four-door with a great exhaust note and a lovely interior as well as often reasonable purchase and running costs.. This one sold for $34,100 at Kissimmee in 2016, then was a $25,000 no-sale at Indy 2016, a $27,000 no-sale at Monterey 2016, and finally brought $24,750 at Indy 2017. It could have brought over $20K again here without being expensive.

Lot # 372 2002 Pontiac Firebird Formula Pace Car; S/N 2G2FV22G922125425; Yellow,, Daytona 500 graphics/Black leather; Unrestored original 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $22,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $24,200 – 346/320hp, 6-speed, black wheels, Firestone Firehawk tires, T-tops. – One of the two pace cars used in the actual Daytona 500 in 2002, and comes with documentation. Signed by Tony Stewart and Jay Leno. 6,812 miles. Mostly just as clean as you’d expect, although the decals are slightly faded and there is a small scratch in the left rear. – 2002 was the last year for the Firebird. It didn’t share in the Camaro’s resurrection at the end of the decade, so it and the GTO were the last performance Pontiacs. And the most eye-catching model of the whole fourth generation (1993-02) Firebird lineup was the 2002 Collector Edition, a bright yellow, black-accented WS6 that largely emulated this Daytona pace car. Pontiacs paced the Daytona 500 almost nonstop throughout the 1970s and 1980s. They did it from 2000-03, too, but ’00 and ’03 were Grand Prix and ’01 was an Aztek, so this is the last “cool” Pontiac to pace the race. A disclaimer from Barrett-Jackson clarified that this is a modified vehicle on a reconstructed title so registering it for the road wouldn’t be as simple as a trip to the DMV, but this is nevertheless the kind of car that fourth gen fans would get excited over. Same goes for Pontiac collectors and NASCAR enthusiasts generally. Yet it sold for a surprisingly modest price. Regular old ’02 Trans Ams in this condition have sold for less. A good buy, all things considered.

Lot # 387 1970 Chevrolet El Camino SS Pickup Custom; S/N 136800K146697; Desert Sand,, Black stripes, Black vinyl roof/Beige vinyl; Modified restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $28,500 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $31,350 – 427/425hp, cowl induction, automatic with horseshoe shifter, 3.31 Positraction, power steering and brakes, tilt steering column, SS wheels, BFG Radial T/A tires, power windows, gauge package, original radio. – Good paint other than two large, deep scratches on the passenger’s door. Scratched bed trim but shiny bumpers. Good, lightly worn interior. Clean wheels. Described as having “an upgraded 427/425hp big-block V8” which suggests it didn’t start out with that engine. – The trouble with an engine swap like this is that many other bits and components hiding in the recesses of the chassis were also upgraded to cope with the extra weight and power. There’s no certainty these were included in the upgrade, not to mention that the standard big block in the SS in 1970 was either a 396 or a 454, not a 427. Under the circumstances and despite how good it looks this is a reasonable price for it.


Lot # 388.1 1986 Buick Regal Grand National Coupe; S/N 1G4GK477XGP448178; Black/Black, Gray cloth; Unrestored original 3 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $45,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $49,500 – 231/245hp, automatic, Goodyear Regatta tires, T-tops, tinted glass, power driver’s seat, cassette, power steering, power brakes, power windows, power antenna, power locks. – Maintained but tidy enough engine bay. Small dent in the passenger’s door. Several paint chips on the windshield frame. Some scratches in the glass and on the T-tops. Very good interior. Considering the 97,843 miles showing, this Grand National could be a lot worse. – Reported sold by B-J in Scottsdale six months ago for $52,800, this is a disappointing result that takes the car’s condition and miles into account. The challenge for it is that many Grand Nationals were driven little if at all before being put away as collectibles leaving it to compete in the market with essentially new condition examples. The bidders here accurately handicapped this car with a realistic price.

Lot # 396 1966 Ford Bronco Utility; S/N U15FL783022; Light Blue,, White stripes/White vinyl; White top; Recent restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $42,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $46,200 – 170/105hp six, automatic, wheel covers, Toyo tires, roll bar, original radio, conversion to power steering and front disc brakes, Warn front hubs. – Beautiful paint. Redone interior. Both doors stick out slightly. Mild scratches on the wheel covers. Nearly spotless underneath. A body-off restoration done to good standards, even for the unusually expensive early Bronco. – The hype from introduction of the new generation Bronco has waned considerably over the past year but demand and values remain strong. This is a desirable and well turned out example, probably too good to take off roading or to haul mulch but a fun weekend driver that boasts a smart appearance.

Lot # 400 1980 Toyota Land Cruiser FJ40V Utility; S/N FJ40919736; Green,, White roof/Saddle; Truck restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $42,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $46,200 – 4,230/125hp 2F engine, 4-speed, Pioneer cassette, Old Man Emu suspension. – Represented as matching numbers drivetrain. Older paint with some blemishes but lovely engine and almost totally redone interior. A standard, lightly driven truck restoration. – Mecum sold this FJ40V in Denver five years ago for $49,500, and Barrett-Jackson sold it here two years ago for $50,600. After preceding the wider trend in big vintage truck prices by several years, FJ40 prices haven’t done a whole lot since their spike in the mid-2010s, as confirmed by this one’s last few trips across the auction block which have been at period-appropriate prices.

Lot # 419.1 1973 Volvo 1800ES Station Wagon; S/N 1836353005911; Orange/Black vinyl; Recent restoration 2+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $55,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $60,500 – 1,986/130hp, 4-speed, overdrive, alloy wheels, Continental tires, pushbutton radio. – Fully restored in Canada and Sweden, and supposedly the engine was rebuilt at the factory. Indeed, everything under the hood looks factory fresh and barely driven at all. Beautiful paint, chrome, and wheels. Weather stripping looks all new, and so does nearly everything in the interior. This is a fresh, gorgeous car that has clearly had a ton of time and money lavished upon it. – By 1972 Volvo’s two-door, four-seater sport coupe was in its 12th year and had progressed from the original Jensen-built P1800 to 1800S (S for “Sweden,” where production relocated) to 1800E (fuel injected). Its most visible change, though, was with the 1972-73 1800ES, notable for its breathtaking sport wagon body with a huge, frameless glass tailgate. Only about 8000 examples were built. Although their performance isn’t electrifying, Volvo 1800s in general are legendary for their durability, enjoy good parts availability, are pleasing to drive, and of course very nice to look at. Despite all that, they were solidly entry-level, sub-$20k classics for years until the secret got out in the mid-2010s and values for all but the rustiest examples climbed steeply. Today the very best examples (like this one) bring over 50 grand.

Lot # 420 1959 Plymouth Fury 2-Dr. Hardtop; S/N M294100126; Bronze,, White roof/Pink vinyl and pattern cloth; Older restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $100,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $110,000 – 318/260hp, pushbutton automatic, wheel covers, whitewalls, dual mirrors, radio, dash clock, power steering, power brakes. – Very good paint and chrome, both starting to show mild age. Light scratching on the window frames and body trim. Very good interior and underbody. Restored about 10 years ago and only lightly used since. – We saw this car at Mecum Monterey in 2019 and it was an $80,000 no-sale. It was a high bid we considered excessive, and this result makes even less sense. The car isn’t any nicer than it was four years ago and `50s Plymouth values haven’t done much since then, either, particularly for base models like this with 318 power. It is more expensive than it deserved to be.

Lot # 421 1967 Chevrolet Camaro RS/SS 2-Dr. Hardtop; S/N 124377N207300; Royal Plum,, White nose stripe and White vinyl roof/Parchment vinyl; Recent restoration 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $41,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $45,100 – 350/295hp, M20 4-speed with Hurst shifter, Rally wheels, Dunlop GT Qualifier tires, gauge package 12-bolt 3.36 rear end, AM radio, GM Canada documented. – Very good paint, chrome, and interior. Very clean engine bay. Restored relatively recently in unusual but charming colors. – All things considered the new owner got a well-optioned and equipped Camaro for a moderate price particularly with the 4-speed and RS package. Another ten thousand would not have been prohibitive.

Lot # 422 1972 Ford Mustang Mach 1 SportsRoof; S/N 2F05H168107; Neon Yellow,, Black stripes/Black, Gray leather; Recent restoration 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $45,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $49,500 – 351/177hp, automatic, Magnum 500 wheels, BFG Radial T/A tires, power steering, factory radio, spoilers, aftermarket steering wheel. – Very good paint, chrome, and panel fit. Clean wheels. Incorrect seats and rubber window trim instead of metal. Otherwise recently restored to appropriately high standards. – This is the H-code plain Jane Mach 1, not the 266hp CJ 351 which could have been bought for the price paid here. The buyer paid for the quality restoration and accepted less under the hood.

Lot # 440 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T 2-Dr. Hardtop; S/N JS23N0B390309; Panther Pink,, White/White vinyl; Modified restoration 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $56,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $61,600 – 440/375hp Magnum, floor shift automatic, Rally wheels, Goodyear Polyglas GT tires, console. – Good paint in eye catching color but it’s a little thick on the drip rails. Lightly worn interior. Cracked taillight lens. An older restoration with “an upgraded 440/375hp engine”. – This Challenger left the factory as a 383/335hp, but the Magnum engine is a forgivable upgrade for which the bidders didn’t discount the car at all.

Lot # 501 1973 Chevrolet Camaro Z/28 Sport Coupe; S/N 1Q87T3N192602; Orange,, Black stripes/Black vinyl; Unrestored original 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $39,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $42,900 – 350/245hp, 4-speed, HEI ignition, BFG Radial T/A tires, spoilers, original radio. – Represented as a one-owner California car with a binder full of receipts, 76,808 miles and the original drivetrain. There are some chips throughout, but the paint and chrome are holding up decently. Some dirt and dust under the hood but it’s also holding up well. Very good original interior. There’s nothing super impressive about a `73 Z28, but this is a commendably well-kept example. – It is rather remarkable that this Z/28 has survived in such good condition after half a century. Despite that it brought no originality premium at all, an oversight by some of the bidders which accrued to the advantage of the new owner.

Lot # 502 1958 Triumph TR3A Roadster; S/N TS22489L; Yellow/Black vinyl piped in White; Black top; Older restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $31,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $34,100 – Later TR4 engine, 4-speed with overdrive, wire wheels, Vredestein tires, Moto-Lita woodrim steering wheel, dual wing mirrors. – Lovely paint but the right door has scrapes along the bottom and the hood is a slightly lighter shade than the rest of the car. Very clean engine and it still looks right. The grille doesn’t quite fit flush. Lovely interior. Fully restored and lightly used. A pretty little car. – Barrett-Jackson Vegas was (and always has been) light on British sports cars. The target audience here prefers their restomods, trucks, muscle, and `50s domestics. No matter, though. Enough roadster fans were paying attention to give this #2- car a right-on #2- price. Fair to everybody even through it’s a good bit more than the $26,950 it brought at Branson Spring in 2022.

Lot # 503 1990 Nissan 300ZX Turbo T-Roof; S/N JN1CZ24A3LX002115; Gray/Gray leather; Unrestored original 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $26,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $28,600 – 2,960/300hp, 5-speed, HKS boost controller, Fittipaldi Design wheels, T-tops with covers, power windows, tinted glass, Alpine head unit. – Reportedly stock other than the wheels and the boost controller. Showing 58,084 believable miles. The paint is dull and detail scratched, but the headlight covers look either new or restored. Tidy and maintained underneath. Very good, lightly worn interior. A used Z. – There was a period over the last couple years where a successful collector flip was almost guaranteed as long as you at least kind of knew what you were doing. Modern Japanese cars like this 300ZX in particular were appreciating by the month, and that’s no exaggeration. But it’s no longer a sure thing in 2023. The wave has crested, and this is a good example. The car appeared at Barrett-Jackson back in January of this year and it sold for $34,100, a strong but not excessive number. It brought thousands less this time around, a soft but not bargain number. Compare this result with #46 a used up and neglected ’86 300ZX Turbo that sold for just $6,600.

Lot # 625 1971 Ford Torino SportsRoof; S/N 1H38M127344; Light Pewter Metallic,, Yellow side stripe/Black vinyl; Older restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $40,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $44,000 – 351/285hp, automatic with Hurst T-handle shifter, 3.25 Traction-Lok, shaker hood, Magnum 500 wheels, BFG Radial T/A tires, rear window slats, console, radio, Marti Report. – Good older paint with a small chip on the right front and a touch up on the left front. Another small chip on the driver’s door. Dull, scratched bumpers, door handles and window frames. Good, lightly worn interior. Tidy engine. Restored 20 years ago and lightly enjoyed since then. – Twenty years can have a negative effect on any restoration and this one’s survival in such good condition is a sign not only of light use but also consistent care and attention. No carport under a pile of boxes for this Torino, and it brought a corresponding strong but not excessive price.

Lot # 641 2001 Ford F-150 Lightning Pickup; S/N 2FTZF07361CA89542; Silver Metallic/Gray, Black cloth; Unrestored original 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $40,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $44,000 – 330/380hp supercharged V8, automatic, alloy SVT wheels, Goodyear Eagle F1 tires, side exhaust, tinted glass, bed cover, 3.73 limited-slip, cassette/CD stereo. – Represented with 1,868 actual miles and as clean as you’d expect. – The ’93 F-150 SVT Lightning was the first SVT-badged Ford (along with the Mustang Cobra), and although the Lightning badge disappeared after 1995 it came back on the 10th gen F-Series in 1999. Same concept as the original – lower ride and more power – but was a significant bump in performance over the original. Even so, the two Lightnings carry similar values currently. The earlier Lightnings have appreciated much more sharply, though, so these newer ones may still have room to grow, and with the Lightning badge currently applied to an EV pickup, this is the last of the proper muscle trucks on the F-150 platform. This one brought $42,900 at B-J Scottsdale three years ago and a little more here in Vegas. If kept in this clean condition it should bring more again in the future.

Lot # 645 1964 Mercedes-Benz 230SL Roadster; S/N 11304210003593; White, Gray hardtop/Black leather; Older restoration 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $44,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $48,400 – 2,308/170hp, 4-speed, two tops, wheel covers, Toyo tires, later Blaupunkt cassette stereo with CD changer, aftermarket wood console, owner’s and service manuals. – Euro spec car, restored in 1990. Decent paint with a long touched up scratch on the hood. Lightly aged chrome and brightwork. Good, lightly worn interior with mildly faded gauges. Straightforward older resto of an early Pagoda with good specs. – Pagoda prices are a bit soft at the moment, even 4-speeds. This one did well to bring close to the $47,250 it sold for last November on Bring a Trailer, but over $50K would have been a more expected number not all that long ago.

Lot # 651 2015 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Convertible; S/N 1G1YT3D64F5601572; Shark Gray/Gray; Unrestored original 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $70,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $77,000 – 376/650hp, 7-speed manual, carbon-ceramic brakes, black wheels. – 1,893 miles and like new. – The price is less than this Z06 would have sold for when it actually was new, but depreciation didn’t hit as hard as one might expect on an eight-year-old Corvette. Then again, depreciation hasn’t been hitting much of anything in the late-model car market these days.

Lot # 669 1968 Plymouth Road Runner Hemi Hardtop; S/N RM23J8G225461; Matador Red/Black vinyl; Older restoration 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $100,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $110,000 – 426/425hp Hemi, automatic, hub caps, red line tires, 3.23 Sure Grip, bench seat, column shift, radio delete. – Represented as the matching numbers engine. A show car in the 2010s. Very good paint and chrome. Slightly erratic panel fit but very good interior, engine bay, and underbody. A great older restored Hemi. – It’s unusual to see a Hemi geared for the highway rather than the drag strip, but it should make the car easier to drive. That apparently appealed to the Vegas bidders less than it did to the folks at Kissimmee in 2018, where this same Road Runner in essentially the same condition sold for $165,000.

Lot # 674 1956 Ford Parklane Station Wagon; S/N M6DR126479; Light Gray, White/Red, White; Older restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $61,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $67,100 – 292/202hp, automatic, hub caps, Firestone wide whitewalls, dual GE spotlights and mirrors, roof rack, heat and defrost, pushbutton radio. – Very good paint and bumper chrome, but the brightwork and window frames show significant scratching. The rear glass is seriously scratched as well. The body sides aren’t totally straight, but the underbody looks very good and so does the interior. A beautiful two-door wagon for cruising, although not a show car. – Any ’56 Parklane is a rare sight, but a clean unmolested one is even rarer. The bidders saw the opportunity and put up a rather strong price, but this wagon has brought more in the past. It sold for $57,200 at this sale way back in 2008 and it sold for $77,000 in Scottsdale eight years ago. Both of those results hint at the softening interest in `50s domestics.

Lot # 682.1 1962 Chevrolet Impala SS 2-Dr. Hardtop; S/N 21847S311692; Satin Silver/Red vinyl; Older restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $100,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $110,000 – 409 with dual quads, floor shift T10 4-speed, spinner wheel covers, narrow whitewalls, bucket seats, Positraction, column-mounted tach. – Carbs, heads, intake, transmission, Positraction are all added but date code correct. Gorgeous, detailed engine bay. Very good paint, chrome, and interior. Light scratches on the window frames and the taillight trim. Fully restored to high standards, reportedly with NOS parts. – Although no engine output is stated the dual quads imply a 409/409hp and given the visible standards of the restoration and build it has probably been breathed upon to modern engine standards and significantly higher output. Not that anyone is likely to take it out and light up its skinny tires in a smoke show (well, maybe once or twice). It is a quality car that brought the right price for its presentation and equipment.

Lot # 702 1972 DeTomaso Pantera “Fast Five” Movie Car Coupe; S/N THPNMG03216; Black,, White graphics/Black; Modified restoration 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $101,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $111,100 – 351 with Edelbrock intake and Carter 750 carb, MSD ignition, 5-speed, Campagnolo wheels, Michelin Pilot Sport tires, tinted glass, roll bar, Deluxe Marti Report. – From the 2011 movie Fast Five, used in the train heist scene. Spare tire, luggage rack, air conditioning, heater motor and windshield wipers were all removed for filming. Bought by the consignor from Universal Studios 10 years ago and refurbished to driving condition (Barrett-Jackson calls it “movie-correct”) and got some paint correction. There is still scratching as well as wear here and there, but this car’s screen time is what makes it desirable. – They’re now on 10 Fast & Furious movies. At this point hundreds of cars have been used for the films, often for one of the cartoonishly unrealistic chase scenes. Unrealistic, but also expensive, as the train scene featuring this Pantera reportedly cost about $25M to film. Memorable enough, too, for Hot Wheels to put out a model of the black DeTomaso. Since there are so many ex-F&F cars out there, they do pop up at auction on occasion, and prices vary depending on what the car was used for (stunts or hero shots?), who drove it (a nameless background character or Paul Walker?), and what the car is (Mitsubishi Eclipse or Mk IV Supra?). In the Pantera’s case, a minor character drove it but did so in a major scene, and a clean Pantera is an inherently valuable car. All things considered, this result makes sense and includes a decent movie premium. It’s also hard to argue with given that the Grand Sport Corvette replica used in the same scene sold for $99,000 in Kissimmee last year.

Lot # 728 1968 Shelby Mustang GT500KR Convertible; S/N 8T03R215892; Red,, White side stripes/Black vinyl; White vinyl top; Older restoration 2- condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $187,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $205,700 – 428/335hp, automatic, Shelby wheels, Goodyear tires, console, original radio, Deluxe Marti Report, original Build Sheet and order documented. – Represented as “date-code and part-number-correct” and “powered by an original Cobra Jet engine”. Former concours winner in the 2010s. A few blemishes on the driver’s door. Lightly scratched front bumper. Otherwise clean. The engine looks excellent. – There are many hints in this GT500KR’s description that much of its original bits and pieces (such as the engine) were replaced during restoration. The bidders took it all into account and put a price on it that balanced the automatic transmission against the uncertainty of the drivetrain’s origin. Somebody somewhere down the line is going to use its description here to claim “original” which is how legends are born. It doesn’t matter today, but it may in the future.

Lot # 733 2023 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 70th Anniversary Convertible; S/N 1G1YF3D36P5700036; White Pearl Metallic/Anniversary Gray, Black, Red leather; Unrestored original 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $257,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $282,700 – 5,463cc/670hp, supercharged, 8-speed dual-clutch, Graphite Aluminum wheels with red stripe, 3LZ Equipment Group, Z07 Performance Package, Carbon Aero Package, Bose 14-speaker stereo. – 500 miles and a new car. – While this amount among similar supercars is cheap for its 2.7 seconds 0-60mph performance and 10.7 seconds 1/4 mile it is much more than its original MSRP in the mid-$100K range even with all the bells and whistles. It’s a strong price to pay even for one of the 70th Anniversary Z06s beloved among Corvette fans. The Bose 14-speaker stereo seems superfluous when the sound of the flat plane crankshaft V-8 is all the music it needs.

Lot # 741 2021 Ferrari SF90 Stradale Berlinetta; S/N ZFF95NLA1M0267679; Red/Black/Red; Unrestored original 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $540,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $594,000 – 3,990/986hp twin-turbo 3-motor hybrid, 8-speed automanual. – 4,050 miles and like new. – A tenth of a second faster 0-60 than the 2023 Corvette Z06 sold eight lots earlier; twice as much money today, but little if any more expensive than it cost off the dealer’s floor..

Lot # 742 2016 Lamborghini Aventador LP750-4 Superveloce Coupe; S/N ZHWUF3ZD3GLA04814; Red/Black, Red; Unrestored original 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $445,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $489,500 – 6,498/750hp, 7-speed automanual, custom exhaust, black wheels, car cover. – Represented with 3159 miles and got its eight-year service this May. There’s nothing wrong with it. – Except perhaps how much it cost.

Lot # 749 2019 Ford GT Coupe; S/N 2FAGP9CW8KH200238; Liquid Gray/Carbon; Unrestored original 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $900,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $990,000 – 213/647hp twin-turbo V6, 7-speed automanual, Lightweight Package (exposed carbon-fiber stripes, carbon-fiber wheels, titanium exhaust, polycarbonate engine cover), Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tires, red calipers, documented with its original window sticker, books, shipping documents, etc. – 3,251 miles and like new. – It’s an intriguing package with the Liquid Gray paint, bare carbon fiber stripes and of course all the bells and whistles of modern luxury performance cars. The result here was a modest discount from current asking prices in the secondary market.

Lot # 759 2020 Aston Martin DBS Superleggera Coupe; S/N SCFRMHAV9LGR01739; Scorpus Red/All Obsidian Black Leather; Unrestored original 2 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $210,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $231,000 – 5,199/715hp twin-turbo V12, ZF 8-speed automanual, gloss black forged wheels, carbon-ceramic brakes, Bang & Olufsen stereo. – One-owner car represented with 7,427 miles. Like new. – Even in an exotic car market crowded with “instant collectibles,” Astons still depreciate. And that included the higher-end ones like the DBS Superleggera. Depending on (expensive) options, this car might have sold for nearly 350 grand new. But while the seller took the knock on depreciation, the new owner gets a V12, 211-mph luxury rocket that’s cheaper and prettier than the rival Ferrari 812 Superfast.

Lot # 785 2001 Ferrari 360 Coupe; S/N ZFFYT53A810123799; Rosso Corsa/Black; Unrestored original 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $125,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $137,500 – 3,586/400hp, 6-speed manual, Continental tires, Scuderia shields, Challenge rear grille, black calipers, books and tools. – Lots of small chips and scratches on the front, but not clear if damage is to the PPF or the actual paint underneath. Flat seat bottoms and some wear on the console. A used Ferrari with 42,468 miles, but it does have a manual. – With extensive use of aluminum throughout its construction as well as its 400-hp engine, the 360 was a huge leap in performance over the 355 that it replaced, but the 360 is also an easier Ferrari to live with, as servicing one is less labor intensive. The mileage on this one shouldn’t be a concern (it was advertised with a fully documented service history) and any visible flaws on it are superficial. Plus, a manual Ferrari is always collectible. The bidders were fair in their assessment and put up a realistic price that is slightly favorable to the seller.

Lot # 802 2002 Dodge Viper RT/10 Convertible; S/N 1B3ER65E52V101674; Red/Brown leather; Visually maintained, largely original 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $45,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $49,500 – 488/450hp, 6-speed, Michelin Pilot Sport tires, two tops, upgraded stereo, air conditioning. – Represented with 7,662 miles. Few signs of wear inside or outside, but the CARFAX reports an accident in 2003. There’s no sign of damage or major repair, but it still wears a scarlet letter. – For someone who wants an RT/10 to drive and enjoy, this car offers a good compromise. With low mileage and a generally clean condition it’s nearly new, but serious collectors would shy away from it because of that little note on its CARFAX, so the new owner snagged it at a significant discount, a price that would ordinarily buy a much more used up example.

Lot # 802.1 1962 Lincoln Continental 4-Dr. Sedan; S/N 2Y82H418998; Beige/White leather piped in Gray; Visually maintained, largely original 3 condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $39,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $42,900 – 430/300hp, automatic, wheel covers, whitewalls, hood ornament, pushbutton radio, power windows, heat and defrost, tinted glass. – Aged older repaint. Aged chrome that might be original. Light scratches on all the body trim. Door fit is slightly uneven. Severe cracks in the front leather, but the rest of the interior looks good. Tidy wheels and clean underbody. Tires look recent. The tint just looks too dark for an otherwise unaltered classic car, though. A maintained and well-loved suicide door Continental. Never restored but has gotten major attention here and there. – While the condition is honestly represented as a “3”, the preservation is better and this result carries a meaningful premium on the order of $10,000 for it. A restoration of one of these is breathtakingly expensive so it is reasonable to pay a third or so more for one that doesn’t need restoration than it is to buy a $15,000 lawn ornament and try to make it this good for the difference.

Lot # 811 1970 Ford Torino Cobra SportsRoof; S/N 0A38N182329; Medium Gold Metallic, Black hood/Brown vinyl; Cosmetic restoration 3+ condition; No Reserve; Hammered Sold at $45,000 plus commission of 10.00%; Final Price $49,500 – 429/370hp, 4-speed with Hurst T-handle shifter, Magnum 500-style wheels, Goodyear Polyglas GT tires, bench seat, heat and defrost, aftermarket stereo, Marti Report. – Paint and interior refresh finished in 2022. Even so, there is a decent sized chip on the front and the matte black hood is faded. Original, aged glass and frames. Uneven panel fit, but clean wheels, new-looking tires, and shiny chrome. Very good interior other than wear on the turn signal stalk. Tidy and clean with new suspension but not fully restored underneath. – Torinos offer a lot of muscle for the money and here’s an example. The result here is market appropriate, and it sold for a similar $53,812 on Bring a Trailer one year ago.

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    • Alex Cauthen
    • July 29, 2023

    I am not so much a fan of the early Airflow cars. Walter Chrysler is supposed to have rushed the model into production resulting in a first year disaster. Worse, it set a public perception that the Airflow was a lemon from the start. I don’t think the Depression killed the Airflow, I think it was the terrible reputation it gained in the first year.

    By the time the factory got the problems ironed out the die was cast.

    The design wasn’t faultless but it deserved mechanically sound constrution to see how the public would have REALLY liked it.

      • rickcarey1
      • July 30, 2023

      I am a fan of the early Airflows, so my feeling is different although I agree that the design innovations deserved a longer evaluation period by the public which never gave it serious consideration.
      This was a time when the extensive development and testing of today was nonexistent and the public was frequently used as test drivers to suffer problems and feed their experiences back to the manufacturer. Witness: the ’32 Ford V-8 which was terribly flawed, took years to resolve and was never fully remedied.
      Differences of opinion are good. Thank you for your reasoned and informed opinion, Alex.


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